A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of DSM-5 specific learning disorders in representative school samples from the second to sixth grade in Brazil

A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of DSM-5 specific learning disorders in representative school samples from the second to sixth grade in Brazil

Author Fortes, Isabela S. Google Scholar
Paula, Cristiane S. Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Oliveira, Melaine C. Google Scholar
Bordin, Isabel A. Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Mari, Jair de Jesus Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Rohde, Luis A. Google Scholar
Abstract Little is known about specific learning disorder (SLD) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and even less from representative school samples in small size cities outside huge urban centers. Few studies addressed the new DSM-5 criteria for SLDs. We investigated the prevalence of DSM-5 SLDs, their comorbidities and correlates in school samples of students from the second to sixth grades living in median cities from four different geographic regions in Brazil. A national test for academic performance covering reading, writing and mathematical abilities was applied. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the K-SADS-PL applied to the primary caregiver. A total of 1618 children and adolescents were included in the study. The following prevalence rates of SLDs were found: 7.6 % for global impairment, 5.4 % for writing, 6.0 % for arithmetic, and 7.5 % for reading impairment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the only comorbidity significantly associated with SLD with global impairment (p = 0.031). Anxiety disorders and ADHD were associated with SLD with arithmetic impairment. Significant differences were detected in prevalence rates among cities, and several socio-demographic correlates (age, gender, IQ, and socioeconomic status) were significantly associated with SLD with global impairment in our sample. Careful validation and normatization of instruments to assess academic performance is a major problem in LMICs. As expected, we found a significant heterogeneity in prevalence rates of SLD according to geographic regions considering that Brazil is a country with a robust diversity. SLD with global and arithmetic impairment was significantly associated with psychiatric comorbidities.
Keywords Specific learning disorder
Mental health disorders
Children and adolescents
Academic performance
Comorbidity
DSM-5
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-coverage New York
Language English
Sponsor Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq, Brazil)
Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)
Grant number CNPq: 573974/2008-0
FAPESP: 2008/57896-8
Date 2016
Published in European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. New York, v. 25, n. 2, p. 195-207, 2016.
ISSN 1018-8827 (Sherpa/Romeo, impact factor)
Publisher Springer
Extent 195-207
Origin https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-015-0708-2
Access rights Open access Open Access
Type Article
Web of Science ID WOS:000369325900009
URI https://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/58489

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