Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults

Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults

Author Ezzati, Majid Google Scholar
Bentham, James Google Scholar
Di Cesare, Mariachiara Google Scholar
Bilano, Ver Google Scholar
Bixby, Honor Google Scholar
Zhou, Bin Google Scholar
Stevens, Gretchen A. Google Scholar
Riley, Leanne M. Google Scholar
Taddei, Cristina Google Scholar
Hajifathalian, Kaveh Google Scholar
Lu, Yuan Google Scholar
Savin, Stefan Google Scholar
Cowan, Melanie J. Google Scholar
Paciore, Christopher J. Google Scholar
Chirita-Emandi, Adela Google Scholar
Hayes, Alison J. Google Scholar
Katz, Joanne Google Scholar
Kelishadi, Roya Google Scholar
Kengne, Andre Pascal Google Scholar
Khang, Young-Ho Google Scholar
Laxmaiah, Avula Google Scholar
Li, Yanping Google Scholar
Ma, Jun Google Scholar
Miranda, J. Jaime Google Scholar
Mostafa, Aya Google Scholar
Neovius, Martin Google Scholar
Padez, Cristina Google Scholar
Rampal, Lekhraj Google Scholar
Zhu, Aubrianna Google Scholar
Bennet, James E. Google Scholar
Danaei, Goodarz Google Scholar
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. Google Scholar
Ezzati, Majid Google Scholar
Abarca-Gomez, Leandra Google Scholar
Abdeen, Ziad A. Google Scholar
Hamid, Zargar Abdul Google Scholar
Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. Google Scholar
Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin Google Scholar
Acuin, Cecilia Google Scholar
Adams, Robert J. Google Scholar
Aekplakorn, Wichai Google Scholar
Afsana, Kaosar Google Scholar
Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. Google Scholar
Agyemng, Charles Google Scholar
Ahmadvand, Alireza Google Scholar
Ahrens, Wolfgang Google Scholar
Ajlouni, Kamel Google Scholar
Akhtaeva, Nazgul Google Scholar
Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M. Google Scholar
Al-Othman, Amani Rashed Google Scholar
Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Google Scholar
AlBuhairan, Fadia Google Scholar
AlDhukai, Shahla Google Scholar
Ali, Mohamed M. Google Scholar
Ali, Osman Google Scholar
Alkerwi, Ala'a Google Scholar
Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar Google Scholar
Aly, Eman Google Scholar
Amarapurkar, Deepak N. Google Scholar
Amouyel, Philippe Google Scholar
Amuzu, Antoinette Google Scholar
Andersen, Lars Bo Google Scholar
Anderssen, Sigmund A. Google Scholar
Andrade, Dolores S. Google Scholar
Angquist, Lars H. Google Scholar
Anjana, Ranjit Mohan Google Scholar
Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer Google Scholar
Araujo, Joana Google Scholar
Arianse, Inger Google Scholar
Aris, Tahir Google Scholar
Arlappa, Nimmathota Google Scholar
Arveiler, Dominique Google Scholar
Aryal, Krishna K. Google Scholar
Aspelund, Thor Google Scholar
Assah, Felix K. Google Scholar
Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F. Google Scholar
Aung, May Soe Google Scholar
Avdicova, Maria Google Scholar
Azevedo, Ana Google Scholar
Azizi, Fereidoun Google Scholar
Babu, Bontha V. Google Scholar
Bahijri, Suhad Google Scholar
Baker, Jennifer L. Google Scholar
Balakrishna, Nagalla Google Scholar
Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed Google Scholar
Banach, Maciej Google Scholar
Bandosz, Piotr Google Scholar
Banegas, Jose R. Google Scholar
Barbagallo, Carlo M. Google Scholar
Barcelo, Alberto Google Scholar
Barkat, Amina Google Scholar
Barros, Aluisio J. D. Google Scholar
Barros, Mauro V. G. Google Scholar
Bata, Iqbal Google Scholar
Batieha, Anwar M. Google Scholar
Batista, Rosangela L. Google Scholar
Batyrbek, Assembekov Google Scholar
Baur, Louise A. Google Scholar
Beaglehole, Robert Google Scholar
Ben Romdhane, Habiba Google Scholar
Benedics, Judith Google Scholar
Benet, Mikhail Google Scholar
Bennet, James E. Google Scholar
Bernabe, Antonio Google Scholar
Bernotiene, Gailute Google Scholar
Bettiol, Heloisa Google Scholar
Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor Google Scholar
Bharadwaj, Sumit Google Scholar
Bhargava, Santosh K. Google Scholar
Bhatti, Zaid Google Scholar
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. Google Scholar
Bi, Hongsheng Google Scholar
Bi, Yufang Google Scholar
Biehl, Anna Google Scholar
Bikbov, Mukharram Google Scholar
Bista, Bihungum Google Scholar
Bjelica, Dusko J. Google Scholar
Bjerregaard, Peter Google Scholar
Bjertnes, Espen Google Scholar
Bjness, Marius B. Google Scholar
Bjorkelund, Cecilia Google Scholar
Blokstra, Anneke Google Scholar
Bo, Simona Google Scholar
Bobak, Martin Google Scholar
Boddy, Lynne M. Google Scholar
Boehm, Bernhard O. Google Scholar
Boeing, Heiner Google Scholar
Boggia, Jose G. Google Scholar
Boissonnet, Carlos P. Google Scholar
Bonaccio, Marialaura Google Scholar
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Bovet, Pascal Google Scholar
Braeckevelt, Lien Google Scholar
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Bragt, Marjolijn C. E. Google Scholar
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Cacciottolo, Joseph Google Scholar
Cai, Hui Google Scholar
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Can, Gunay Google Scholar
Candido, Ana P. C. C. Google Scholar
Capanzana, Mario Google Scholar
Capuano, Vincenzo Google Scholar
Cardoso, Viviane C. Google Scholar
Carlsson, Axel C. Google Scholar
Carvalho, Maria J. Google Scholar
Casanueva, Felipe F. Google Scholar
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Caserta, Carmelo A. Google Scholar
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Chan, Queenie Google Scholar
Chaturvedi, Himanshu K. Google Scholar
Chaturvedi, Nishi Google Scholar
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Chen, Shuohua Google Scholar
Chen, Zhengming Google Scholar
Cheng, Ching-Yu Google Scholar
Chetrit, Angela Google Scholar
Chikova-Iscener, Ekaterina Google Scholar
Chiolero, Arnaud Google Scholar
Chiou, Shu-Ti Google Scholar
Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores Google Scholar
Cho, Belong Google Scholar
Cho, Yumi Google Scholar
Christensen, Kaare Google Scholar
Christofaro, Diego G. Google Scholar
Chudek, Jerzy Google Scholar
Cifkova, Renata Google Scholar
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Concin, Hans Google Scholar
Confortin, Susana C. Google Scholar
Cooper, Cyrus Google Scholar
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Coppinger, Tara C. Google Scholar
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Cowell, Chris Google Scholar
Craig, Cora L. Google Scholar
Crujeiras, Ana B. Google Scholar
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d'Orsi, Eleonora Google Scholar
Dallongeville, Jean Google Scholar
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Damsgaard, Camilla T. Google Scholar
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Dantoft, Thomas M. Google Scholar
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De Backer, Guy Google Scholar
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de Gaetano, Giovanni Google Scholar
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De Smedt, Delphine Google Scholar
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Deev, Alexander D. Google Scholar
Dehghan, Abbas Google Scholar
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Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F. Google Scholar
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Do, Ha T. P. Google Scholar
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Doering, Angela Google Scholar
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Egbagbe, Eruke E. Google Scholar
Eggertsen, Robert Google Scholar
Eiben, Gabriele Google Scholar
Ekelund, Ulf Google Scholar
El Ati, Jalila Google Scholar
Elliott, Paul Google Scholar
Engle-Stone, Reina Google Scholar
Erasmus, Rajiv T. Google Scholar
Erem, Cihangir Google Scholar
Eriksen, Louise Google Scholar
Eriksson, Johan G. Google Scholar
Escobedo, Jorge Google Scholar
Evans, Alun Google Scholar
Faeh, David Google Scholar
Fall, Caroline H. Google Scholar
Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia Google Scholar
Farzadfar, Farshad Google Scholar
Felix-Redondo, Francisco J. Google Scholar
Ferguson, Trevor S. Google Scholar
Fernandes, Romulo A. Google Scholar
Fernandez-Berges, Daniel Google Scholar
Ferrante, Daniel Google Scholar
Ferrari, Marika Google Scholar
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Ferrieres, Jean Google Scholar
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Fischer, Krista Google Scholar
Monterubio Flores, Eric Google Scholar
Foeger, Bernhard Google Scholar
Foo, Leng Huat Google Scholar
Forslund, Ann-Sofie Google Scholar
Forsner, Maria Google Scholar
Fouad, Heba M. Google Scholar
Francis, Damian K. Google Scholar
Franco, Maria do Carmo Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Franco, Oscar H. Google Scholar
Frontera, Guillermo Google Scholar
Fuchs, Flavio D. Google Scholar
Fuch, Sandra C. Google Scholar
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Galvano, Fabio Google Scholar
Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli Google Scholar
Gareta, Dickman Google Scholar
Garnett, Sarah P. Google Scholar
Gaspoz, Jean-Michel Google Scholar
Gasull, Magda Google Scholar
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Geiger, Harald Google Scholar
Geleijnse, Johanna M. Google Scholar
Ghasemian, Anoosheh Google Scholar
Giampaoli, Simona Google Scholar
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Gill, Tiffany K. Google Scholar
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Gregor, Ronald D. Google Scholar
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Grontved, Anders Google Scholar
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Gudnason, Vilmundur Google Scholar
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Abstract Background Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128.9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31.5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0.01 kg/m (2) per decade

95% credible interval -0.42 to 0.39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease= 0.5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1.00 kg/m(2) per decade (0.69-1.35, PP> 0.9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0.95 kg/m (2) per decade (0.64-1.25, PP> 0.9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0.09 kg/m(2) per decade (-0.33 to 0.49, PP= 0.6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0.77 kg/m (2) per decade (0.50-1.06, PP> 0.9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0.7% (0.4-1.2) in 1975 to 5.6% (4.8-6.5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0.9% (0.5-1.3) in 1975 to 7.8% (6.7-9.1) in 2016 in boys

the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9.2% (6.0-12.9) in 1975 to 8.4% (6.8-10.1) in 2016 in girls and from 14.8% (10.4-19.5) in 1975 to 12.4% (10.3-14.5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22.7% (16.7-29.6) among girls and 30.7% (23.5-38.0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau

and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.
Keywords Childhood Obesity
Prevention Programs
Health
Food
Prevalence
Weight
Risk
Definition
Morbidity
Mortality
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-coverage New York
Language English
Sponsor Wellcome Trust
AstraZeneca Young Health Programme
Date 2017
Published in The Lancet. New York, v. 390, n. 10113, p. 2627-2642, 2017.
ISSN 0140-6736 (Sherpa/Romeo, impact factor)
Publisher Elsevier Sci Inc
Extent 2627-2642
Origin https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3
Access rights Open access Open Access
Type Article
Web of Science ID WOS:000418101000024
URI https://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/53990

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