Effects of Carbohydrate and Glutamine Supplementation on Oral Mucosa Immunity after Strenuous Exercise at High Altitude: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial

Effects of Carbohydrate and Glutamine Supplementation on Oral Mucosa Immunity after Strenuous Exercise at High Altitude: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial

Author Caris, Aline Venticinque Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Da Silva, Edgar Tavares Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Dos Santos, Samile Amorim Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Tufik, Sergio Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Thomatieli Dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Abstract This study analyzed the effects of carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation on salivary immunity after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. Fifteen volunteers performed exercise of 70% of VO2peak until exhaustion and were divided into three groups: hypoxia placebo, hypoxia 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min), and hypoxia after six days glutamine (20 g/day) and 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min). All procedures were randomized and double-blind. Saliva was collected at rest (basal), before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise (post-exercise), and two hours after exercise. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures and Tukey post hoc test were performed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. SaO(2)% reduced when comparing baseline vs. pre-exercise, post-exercise, and after recovery for all three groups. There was also a reduction of SaO(2)% in pre-exercise vs. post-exercise for the hypoxia group and an increase was observed in pre-exercise vs. recovery for both supplementation groups, and between post-exercise and for the three groups studied. There was an increase of salivary flow in post-exercise vs. recovery in Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) decreased from baseline vs. post-exercise for Hypoxia + Glutamine group. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) increased from post-exercise vs. after recovery in Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Reduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was observed from baseline vs. post-exercise and after recovery for the Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group

a lower concentration was observed in pre-exercise vs. post-exercise and recovery. TNF-alpha had a reduction from baseline vs. post-exercise for both supplementation groups, and a lower secretion between baseline vs. recovery, and pre-exercise vs. post-exercise for Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Five hours of hypoxia and exercise did not change IgA. Carbohydrates, with greater efficiency than glutamine, induced anti-inflammatory responses.
Keywords supplementation
carbohydrate
hypoxia
physical exercise
glutamine
high altitude
innate immune response
oral mucosal immunity
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-coverage Basel
Language English
Date 2017
Published in Nutrients. Basel, v. 9, n. 7, p. -, 2017.
ISSN 2072-6643 (Sherpa/Romeo, impact factor)
Publisher Mdpi Ag
Extent -
Origin http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9070692
Access rights ACESSO ABERTO
Type Article
Web of Science ID WOS:000406679700049
URI https://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/53554

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