Green Extraction Approaches for Carotenoids and Esters: Characterization of Native Composition from Orange Peel

Green Extraction Approaches for Carotenoids and Esters: Characterization of Native Composition from Orange Peel

Author Murador, Daniella C. Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Salafia, Fabio Google Scholar
Zoccali, Mariosimone Google Scholar
Martins, Paula L. G. Google Scholar
Ferreira, Antônio G. Google Scholar
Dugo, Paola Google Scholar
Mondello, Luigi Google Scholar
Rosso, Veridiana V. de Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Giuffrida, Daniele Google Scholar
Abstract Abstract: Orange peel is a by-product produced in large amounts that acts as a source of natural pigments such as carotenoids. Xanthophylls, the main carotenoid class found in citrus fruit, can be present in its free form or esterified with fatty acids, forming esters. This esterification modifies the compound’s chemical properties, affecting their bioavailability in the human body, and making it important to characterize the native carotenoid composition of food matrices. We aimed to evaluate the non-saponified carotenoid extracts of orange peel (cv. Pera) obtained using alternative green approaches: extraction with ionic liquid (IL), analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), followed by supercritical fluid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (SFC-APCI/QqQ/MS) in an online system. Both alternative green methods were successfully applied, allowing the total identification of five free carotenoids, one apocarotenoid, seven monoesters, and 11 diesters in the extract obtained with IL and analyzed by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS, and nine free carotenoids, six carotenoids esters, 19 apocarotenoids, and eight apo-esters with the SFE-SFC-APCI/QqQ/MS approach, including several free apocarotenoids and apocarotenoid esters identified for the first time in oranges, and particularly in the Pera variety, which could be used as a fruit authenticity parameter.
Keywords citrus
xanthophylls
esterification
fatty acids
apocarotenoids
ionic liquid
[C4mim]Cl
supercritical fluid
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-coverage Basel
Language English
Sponsor Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)
Grant number FAPESP: 2015/26789-5
FAPESP: 2016/18910-1
FAPESP: 2017/20861-1
FAPESP: 2019/25303-2
Date 2019
Published in Murador DC, Salafia F, Zoccali M, Martins PLG, Ferreira AG, Dugo P, et al. Green Extraction Approaches for Carotenoids and Esters: Characterization of Native Composition from Orange Peel. Antioxidants [Internet]. MDPI AG; 2019 Dec 3;8(12):613. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120613
ISSN 2076-3921 (Sherpa/Romeo)
Publisher MDPI
Origin https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120613
Access rights Open access Open Access
Type Article
URI https://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/53338

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