Sub-micrometre particulate matter is primarily in liquid form over Amazon rainforest

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dc.contributor.author Bateman, Adam P.
dc.contributor.author Gong, Zhaoheng
dc.contributor.author Liu, Pengfei
dc.contributor.author Sato, Bruno
dc.contributor.author Cirino, Glauber
dc.contributor.author Zhang, Yue
dc.contributor.author Artaxo, Paulo
dc.contributor.author Bertram, Allan K.
dc.contributor.author Manzi, Antonio O.
dc.contributor.author Rizzo, Luciana V. [UNIFESP]
dc.contributor.author Souza, Rodrigo A. F.
dc.contributor.author Zaveri, Rahul A.
dc.contributor.author Martin, Scot T.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-01-21T10:30:18Z
dc.date.available 2019-01-21T10:30:18Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier http://dx.dx.doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2599
dc.identifier.citation Nature Geoscience. New York, v. 9, n. 1, p. 34, 2016.
dc.identifier.issn 1752-0894
dc.identifier.uri http://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/49693
dc.description.abstract Atmospheric particulate matter influences the Earth's energy balance directly, by altering or absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by influencing cloud formation(1). Whether organic particulate matter exists in a liquid, semi-solid, or solid state can affect particle growth and reactivity(2,3), and hence particle number, size and composition. The properties and abundance of particles, in turn, influence their direct and indirecte effects on energy balance(4). Non-liquid particulate matter was identified over a boreal forest of Northern Europe(5), but laboratory studies suggest that, at higher relative humidity levels, particles can be liquid(6,7). Here we measure the physical state of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 1 mu m over the tropical rainforest of central Amazonia in 2013. A real-time particle rebound technique shows that the particulate matter was liquid for relative humidity greater than 80% for temperatures between 296 and 300 K during both the wet and dry seasons. Combining these findings with the distributions of relative humidity and temperature in Amazonia, we conclude that near-surface sub-micrometre particulate matter in Amazonia is liquid most of the time during both the wet and the dry seasons. en
dc.description.sponsorship Office of Biological and Environmental Research
dc.description.sponsorship Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Program of Office of Biological and Environmental Research
dc.description.sponsorship United States Department of Energy (DOE)
dc.description.sponsorship Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)
dc.description.sponsorship Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas (FAPEAM)
dc.description.sponsorship Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)
dc.format.extent 34
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Nature Publishing Group
dc.relation.ispartof Nature Geoscience
dc.rights Acesso restrito
dc.subject Secondary Organic Aerosol en
dc.subject Atmospheric Aerosols en
dc.subject Relative-Humidity en
dc.subject Size Distribution en
dc.subject Alpha-Pinene en
dc.subject Phase State en
dc.subject Particles en
dc.subject Growth en
dc.subject Reactivity en
dc.subject Precipitation en
dc.title Sub-micrometre particulate matter is primarily in liquid form over Amazon rainforest en
dc.type Carta
dc.description.affiliation Harvard Univ, Sch Engn & Appl Sci, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Fed Sao Carlos, BR-13565905 Sao Paulo, Brazil
dc.description.affiliation Natl Inst Amazonian Res, BR-60060000 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
dc.description.affiliation Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil
dc.description.affiliation Univ British Columbia, Dept Chem, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada
dc.description.affiliation Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Dept Earth & Exact Sci, BR-09972270 Sao Paulo, Brazil
dc.description.affiliation Amazonas State Univ, BR-69050020 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
dc.description.affiliation Pacific NW Natl Lab, Richland, WA 99352 USA
dc.description.affiliation Harvard Univ, Dept Earth & Planetary Sci, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
dc.description.affiliationUnifesp Department of Earth and Exact Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo 09972-270, Brazil
dc.identifier.doi 10.1038/NGEO2599
dc.description.source Web of Science
dc.identifier.wos WOS:000367200300012



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