High mortality among young crack cocaine users in Brazil: a 5-year follow-up study

High mortality among young crack cocaine users in Brazil: a 5-year follow-up study

Autor Ribeiro, M. Google Scholar
Dunn, J. Google Scholar
Laranjeira, R. Google Scholar
Sesso, R. Google Scholar
Instituição Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Camden & Islington Mental Hlth & Social Care Trus
Resumo Aims Follow-up studies show that smokers, alcoholics and heroin addicts have high mortality rates, but there is little information on crack users. We have investigated the mortality rate among this population, including its risk factors and causes of death.Design A 5-year follow-up study.Participants and setting A cohort of 131. crack-dependent patients, admitted to a public detoxification unit in São Paulo between 1992 and 1994.Measurements Data collected from a structured personal interview and from a review of patients' hospital records, confirming the deaths from records held at the Municipal Offices.Findings of the 124 (94.69%) patients located, 23 (18.5%) had died (a mortality ratio of 7.6). Homicide was the most common cause of death (n = 13). Observed mortality rate, adjusted for age and sex, was 24.92 per 1000, while the expected all-cause mortality rate in São Paulo, also adjusted for age and sex, was 3.28 per 1000, giving an excess mortality rate of 21.64 per 1000. Survival analysis showed that the probability of being alive 5 years post-treatment was 0.80 (95%, CI=0.77-0.84). Cox's proportional hazards regression showed three factors predicted mortality: history of intravenous drug use (hazard ratio 3.28, 95% Cl 1.42-7.59), unemployment at index admission (hazard ratio 3.48, 95% Cl 1.03-11.80) and premature discharge from index admission (hazard ratio 2.21, CI 0.94-5.18).Conclusions Community-based and tailored interventions should be considered to improve those patients' social support and permanence in treatment.
Palavra-chave addiction
crack cocaine
drug abuse
follow-up study
mortality
Idioma Inglês
Data de publicação 2004-09-01
Publicado em Addiction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, v. 99, n. 9, p. 1133-1135, 2004.
ISSN 0965-2140 (Sherpa/Romeo, fator de impacto)
Publicador Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Extensão 1133-1135
Fonte http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00804.x
Direito de acesso Acesso restrito
Tipo Artigo
Web of Science WOS:000223721100012
Endereço permanente http://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/27931

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