Polimorfismos e expressão de genes de moléculas do sistema imune no carcinoma de colo uterino

Polimorfismos e expressão de genes de moléculas do sistema imune no carcinoma de colo uterino

Título alternativo Polymorphisms and gene expression of immune system molecules in cervical cancer
Autor Guzman, Valeska Barcelos Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Orientador Gerbase-Lima, Maria Autor UNIFESP Google Scholar
Instituição Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Pós-graduação Microbiologia e imunologia - São Paulo
Resumo Os objetivos de nosso trabalho foram: 1) investigar a relação entre polimorfismos dos genes CD28, ICOS, CTLA4, PDCD1, FAS, TGFB1, IFNG, IL6, IL10, TNFA e a ocorrência de carcinoma do colo uterino; 2) investigar a relação entre nível de expressão dos genes CD28, CTLA4, ICOS, ICOSL, CD80, CD86, GZMB (granzima B) em biópsias de carcinoma de colo uterino, no momento do diagnóstico, e a evolução do tumor após o tratamento. Materiais e Métodos: 1) A determinação dos polimorfismos foi realizada através dos métodos PCR-RFLP, para os SNPs: CD28 int3 (+17 T>C), CTLA4 promoter (-319 C>T), CTLA4 exon 1 (+49 A>G), ICOS 3’UTR (+1564 T>C), PDCD1 exon 5 (+7785 C>T) e FAS promoter (-670 G>A) e PCR-SSP para TNFA promoter (-308 G>A), IL6 promoter (-174 G>C), IFNG int1 (+874 A>T), TGFB1 codon 10 (+869 T>C), codon 25 (+915 G>C) and IL10 promoter (-1082 A>G), (-819 C>T), (-592 C>A) SNPs. Um algoritmo foi desenvolvido para identificar genótipos de SNPs isolados e/ou em combinações de 2 e 3 genótipos associados com a doença 2) Expressão gênica foi determinada, por PCR em tempo real, em biópsias de carcinoma cervical de pacientes posteriormente classificadas em dois grupos: 10 pacientes sem envidência do tumor (evolução clínica boa) após 6 meses do final do tratamento e 8 pacientes nas quais o tumor foi detectado (evolução clínica ruim) neste período. Resultados: 1) Nenhuma associação significante foi observada com os SNPs analisados isoladamente. A análise do multi-locus revelou, em pacientes, maiores frequências de três combinações de três genótipos (CD28 +17 int3(TT)/IFNG+874 int1(AA)/TNFA-308(GG), CD28+17 int3 (TT)/IFNG+874 Iint1(AA)/PDCD1 +7785 exon5 (CT), CD28 int3(TT)/IFNG int1(AA)/ICOS 1564 3’UTR (TT)) (p<0,01). Entretanto, a contribuição do terceiro polimorfismo (TNFA, ICOS, or PDCD1) não foi confirmada (p=0,1). Confirmamos maior frequência, em pacientes, da combinação CD28(TT)/IFNG(AA) nos três grupos juntos, e observamos uma contribuição principal desta combinação na associação com a doença (OR = 2,07, p=0,0011). 2) A expressão intra-tumoral de GZMB estava aumentada em biópsias de pacientes com estadio IIIB que apresentaram uma evolução clínica ruim (p=0,034). A expressão gênica das moléculas CD28, ICOS, ICOSL, CD80, CTLA4 e CD86 não mostrou diferenças significantes entre as biópsias de pacientes de grupos de evolução clínica boa e ruim. Conclusões: 1) Nossos resultados sugerem efeito epistático entre os genes CD28 e IFNG na susceptibilidade do câncer de colo uterino. Outros trabalhos em estudos independentes aplicando abordagem multi-locus são importantes para a elucidação da contribuição de polimorfismos genéticos para a susceptibilidade a esta doença. Além disto, o algoritmo desenvolvido pode ser aplicado a estudos sobre fatores genéticos de susceptibilidade a outras doenças complexas. 2) Altos níveis de mRNA de GZMB em tumores no estádio IIIB correlacionaram-se com menor sobrevida livre do tumor nos 6 meses após o tratamento. A expressão deste gene, se os resultados obtidos forem confirmados por um estudo independente, pode vir a se tornar um marcador de prognóstico para resposta a tratamento de carcinoma de colo uterino.

Background Cervical cancer is a complex disease with multiple environmental and genetic determinants. The most important environmental factor is infection by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Considering that only a small proportion of HPV-infected women develop cervical cancer, polymorphisms in immune response genes that might be involved in virus elimination, or in the immune response against the tumor, are considered important candidates to influence cervical cancer susceptibility. Results In the present study we aimed to search association between polymorphisms in immune response genes and cervical cancer, using both single-locus and multi-locus analysis approaches. A total of 14 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) distributed into CD28, CTLA4, ICOS, PDCD1, FAS, TNFA, IL6, IFNG, TGFB1 and IL10 genes were determined in patients and healthy individuals from three independent case/control sets: the first two sets comprised White individuals (one group with 82 cases and 85 controls, and the other with 83 cases and 85 controls) and the third was constituted by Non-White individuals (64 cases and 75 controls). No significant association was observed with any individual SNP. The multi-locus analysis revealed higher frequencies, in cancer patients, of three three-genotype combinations (CD28+17(TT)/IFNG+874(AA)/TNFA-308(GG), CD28+17(TT)/IFNG(AA)/PDCD1+7785(CT), and CD28 +17(TT)/IFNG+874(AA)/ICOS+1564(TT) (p<0.01, Monte Carlo simulation). Noticing that all these three genotype combinations contained two genotypes in common, i.e. CD28(TT) and IFNG(AA), we hypothesized that this two-genotype combination could have a major contribution to the observed association. To address this question, we analyzed frequencies of CD28(TT),IFNG(AA) genotype combination in the three groups combined and observed its increase in patients (p=0.0011 by Fisher’s exact test). In a second Monte Carlo simulation of three-genotype combinations where CD28 (TT) and IFNG (AA) were always present, we verified that the contribution of a third polymorphism did not reach statistical significance (p=0.1). Conclusions Further analysis suggested that gene-gene interaction between CD28 and IFNG might be important for susceptibility to cervical cancer. Background There is overwhelming evidence that prolonged infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus is the major factor associated with development of cervical cancer [1]. However, considering that only a relatively small proportion of infected women develop cervical cancer, it is conceivable that other environmental and/or genetic factors play a role in the susceptibility [2]. Since the immune response has an important role in the defense against the virus, as well as against the tumor, polymorphisms in genes that potentially affect the immune response are candidates to influence the susceptibility to cervical cancer. A series of publications on polymorphisms of HLA class II genes and cervical cancer and/or its precursor lesions, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), show that some HLA alleles are associated with protection, while others are associated with susceptibility [3–10]. These associations are probably explained by the role of HLA II molecules in presenting viral- or tumor- derived epitopes to T CD4+ cells. More recently, interesting findings were reported concerning resistance/susceptibility to cervical cancer mediated by combinations of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and their HLA class I ligands [11]. As polymorphisms in genes coding for cytokines, cytokine receptors, co-stimulatory molecules may affect the immune response [12–14], they are natural candidates to influence the susceptibility to various diseases, including cancer. The majority of the studies of association between immune response genes and cervical cancer have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) [15–18]. Although some significant associations have been reported in some studies, they were not consistently confirmed in other studies [19–23]. Bearing in mind that molecules involved in the immune response do not act in isolation, but form a complex network of interacting proteins, the net immunologic response is most probably the product of variation in many polymorphic genes. Therefore, it is of great importance to test the combination of polymorphisms in different genes as a risk factor for diseases [24–27]. Any multi-locus approach, however, directly or indirectly faces the problem that has been referred as “curse of dimensionality” because, although the number of polymorphisms under study may not be very large, the number of possible combinations between them turns to be extremely high. Some statistical approaches for this problem were recently reviewed [28]. The purpose of this study was to investigate association between invasive cervical cancer and polymorphisms in genes coding the following immune response molecules: CD28, CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), ICOS (inducible T cell co-stimulator), PDCD1 (programmed cell death receptor-1, also called PD-1) FAS, TNFα, IL-6, IFNγ, TGFβ1 and IL-10. In addition to the analysis of association with each polymorphism, we searched for association with two- and threepolymorphism combinations, utilizing a new statistical approach.
Palavra-chave Neoplasias do colo do útero
Polimorfismo genético
RNA mensageiro
Evolução clínica
Idioma Português
Financiador Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)
Data de publicação 2007
Publicado em GUZMAN, Valeska Barcelos. Polimorfismos e expressão de genes de moléculas do sistema imune no carcinoma de colo uterino. 2007 137 f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências) - Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, 2007.
Publicador Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Extensão 137 f.
Direito de acesso Acesso aberto Open Access
Tipo Tese de doutorado
Endereço permanente http://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/23446

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